Multiple societal benefits underlie the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) support for a viable and sustainable domestic lignocellulosic advanced biofuels and bioproducts industry. These benefits include ensuring future energy security, lowering greenhouse gases to mitigate climate impacts, diversifying the range of available products, producing less toxic chemicals and byproducts, creating jobs in rural areas, and improving the trade balance. A DOE workshop sought ways to realize these benefits by accelerating the emergence of a robust, new cellulosic ethanol industry. The resulting report, Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol (U.S. DOE 2006), outlined a path toward this future, emphasizing integrated research from feedstock development to conversion technologies.

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